Border Defense Cooperation Agreement
The agreement was signed during Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh`s visit to Beijing. India and China show a special case of “restricted cooperation”, where the convergence of their economic interests tends to mask their dominant strategic differences. But these differences, which focus on territorial and border disputes, still offer the potential to put relationships first at any time. Overall, the BDCA remains a deficit commitment agreement. It contains no binding guarantee that india`s and China`s HQs will set up a hotline and says both sides could “consider” this approach. Article VI states that there would be “no unpacking work” of the other`s patrols in disputed forward areas. However, Indian border guards who were supposed to control and prevent such incursions faced an antagonistic Chinese People`s Liberation Army. Reading the text of the article from Article VI, it is clear that the BDCA does little to reduce the likelihood of an error of assessment of the LoAC. Article VI expressly prohibits a party from actively following or following the patrols of another party, as was the case in April. Articles VI, VII and VIII explicitly define dispute resolution procedures in “areas where there is no common understanding of the effective line of control”. This serves to sow doubt about the usefulness of the 1993 Convention. During the Daulat Beg Oldi incident, China never admitted to entering India. With the BDCA, the Chinese could have claimed a lack of common understanding.
Improving the means of communication between the two sides will reduce the likelihood of accidental intrusion, but if China chooses to deliberately provoke India, it could have a stronger base for this. Chinese Premier Li Keqiang said he would help maintain the border “peace, tranquility and stability.” China`s cross-border incursions undermine the spirit of any confidence-building measures regarding border areas undertaken by New Delhi and Beijing. The 2013 Depsang incident casts a menacing shadow over China`s intentions on the border issue and sweeps away the spirit of previous border peace agreements. As for tangible progress towards a breakthrough on the broader issue of border resolution, India and China have failed miserably. On 23 October, Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh met with Chinese Premier Li Keqiang, the two leaders having concluded and signed a Border Defence Cooperation Agreement (BDCA) aimed at maintaining peace along the Border Control Line (LoAC), founded in 1993. The momentum that led to this deal was largely generated by the incursion of a Chinese train into Indian territory in April 2013, known as the Daulat Beg Oldi incident. . .